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Transcript of a biochemical blood test online
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Brief description of the parameters of biochemical blood analysis
- Total protein of blood is the total content of all proteins in serum. Its content reflects the general state of the body and liver function. The total protein may decrease (hypoproteinemia) and increase (hyperproteinemia) for various reasons
- Blood albumins are the main fraction of blood proteins (about 50-60 plasma) that maintain oncotic blood pressure and perform transport functions. Albumins can also serve as a source of protein during fasting.
- A-globulins are a fraction of blood proteins involved in enzyme transport, inflammation, formation of nonspecific immunity and oncological response.
- B-globulins are mainly a transport fraction of blood proteins, the amount of which can change with metabolic disorders (associated with any factors).
- Y-globulins (immunoglobulins) are specific blood antibodies that perform immune functions.
- Immunoglobulins G are the most common antibodies involved in the immune response, in the complement system and in phagocytosis.
- Immunoglobulins E are antibodies involved mainly in allergic reactions.
- Immunoglobulins A are surface antibodies contained on the mucous membranes.
- Immunoglobulins M are acute phase antibodies produced at the beginning of the immune response.
- Fibrinogen is a colorless protein, the first factor of the plasma coagulation system. If there is a lack of it, bleeding stops longer, and if there is an excess, thrombosis may occur.
- C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein that reflects inflammatory processes with tissue destruction. It is a fairly accurate marker of inflammation in the body.
- Myoglobin is an oxygen-binding protein of skeletal muscles and the heart. Its increase is fixed mainly with the active destruction of muscle tissue (for example, with a heart attack).
- Bilirubin is a substance formed during the utilization of red blood cells. First, its unrelated form is formed (indirect bilirubin), then it is inactivated in the liver, turning into direct bilirubin. Together they form total bilirubin.
- Usually, the enzymes detected in the blood are normally practically not contained there. As a rule, enzymes increase in serum when cells of certain organs are destroyed.
- Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) is an endogenous transferase responsible for amino acid metabolism. It is mainly contained inside cells (most of all in the liver), and its increase may indicate the destruction of cells.
- Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an endogenous transferase that performs the synthesis of amino acids that are part of cell membranes. AST is found in various organs, but most of all in the myocardium, hepatocytes, neurons and muscles. An increase in the enzyme indicates the destruction of cells of one of these organs.
- Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism involved in the breakdown of carbohydrates (glycolysis). It has 5 isoenzymes (by organs). Its multiple increase is most often associated with myocardial infarction, although it can increase or decrease for many reasons.
- Creatine kinase (creatine phosphokinase, KK) is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of creatine phosphate, providing muscle contraction. There is practically no blood in the norm, and its increase indicates damage to myocytes. There are 2 fractions - MV (cardiac) and MM (skeletal muscles).
- Gamma-glutamintransferase (GGTP) is an enzyme involved in the exchange of amino acids. It is a rather specific marker of bile congestion and some other problems.
- Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme that transports phosphorus through the cell membrane. It demonstrates the state of phosphorus-calcium metabolism.
- Alpha-amylase (diastase) is a group of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Most of it is produced by the pancreas (pancreatic amylase), a smaller part is produced by the salivary glands. Normally, it almost does not penetrate into the blood, but if the pancreas is damaged, its amount may increase.
- Lipase is an enzyme of the pancreas responsible for the breakdown of fats in the gastrointestinal tract. It can enter the blood in large quantities when the pancreas is damaged.
- cHolinesterase is an enzyme formed in the liver and contained in nervous tissue and skeletal muscles. It participates in the transport of ions through the membranes of blood cells and skeletal muscles and in the regulation of excitability and contractility of smooth muscles and myocardium. A decrease in its activity indicates a lack of liver function, and an increase indicates non-specific disorders in the oxidation system.
- Cholesterol is a component of cell membranes. By itself, it is not the main cause of atherosclerosis, but its prolonged increase (hypercholesterolemia) is a marker of hepatic and lipid disorders characteristic of the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. However, cholesterol deficiency (hypercholesterolemia) is also a marker of serious problems in the body, especially in the liver.
- Triglycerides (TG) are neutral fats (glycerin derivatives), which are a capacious source of energy. They are synthesized by the liver and intestines during digestion. By themselves, they cause changes, but they are a marker of lipid disorders.
- Lipoproteins are complex proteins that transfer various lipids. They are divided into low- and very low-density lipoproteins (LDL and VLDL, popularly bad cholesterol) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL, popularly good cholesterol). LDL transports cholesterol to the tissues and walls of blood vessels, and HDL - from the tissues to the liver, where it is disposed of.
- LDL (lipoproteins low density) - are carriers of endogenous cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids from the liver to the tissues. This is the so-called bad cholesterol. They penetrate into the artery wall and accumulate in it. Sometimes VLDL (very low density lipoproteins) are also isolated in LDL, although this has no practical significance.
- HDL (lipoproteins high density) - participate in the reverse capture of cholesterol from the vessel walls and prevent atherosclerosis. This is the so-called good cholesterol.
- The atherogenicity index is the ratio of bad and good cholesterol, that is (cholesterol - HDL) / HDL, or LDL/HDL. It reflects the risk of developing atherosclerosis.
- Glucose is a carbohydrate, which is the main one in the current energy supply of the body. With an excess of glucose (hyperglycemia), its assimilation by cells is disrupted, which causes a violation of cellular nutrition. And with glucose deficiency (hypoglycemia ), energy deficiency occurs quickly.
- fRuctosamine is a glycosylated protein, the product of the interaction of glucose with plasma proteins. Usually, its increase indicates prolonged hyperglycemia.
Nitrogenous substances of blood
- Creatinine is the final product of nitrogen metabolism, excreted in the urine. It is formed in the muscles and then released into the blood. Its increase usually indicates a violation of the excretory function of the kidneys.
- Uric acid is a byproduct of purine base metabolism. It increases most often with gout, but a violation of its amount is observed in many diseases.
- Urea is the end product of protein metabolism. Its excess most often indicates renal pathology, although there are other reasons. Deficiency occurs primarily during protein starvation.
Iron exchange and transport
- Transferrins are plasma proteins that transport iron. Their increase indicates iron deficiency or hepatitis. Deficiency is rare, with some types of anemia or iron poisoning.
- Ferritin is a complex ironoprotein that acts as a depot for iron in the body. A decrease in its level indicates an iron deficiency, and an increase indicates some redistributive anemia.
- Serum iron is the amount of iron associated with transferrin. Its deficiency directly indicates iron deficiency anemia.
- The total iron binding capacity of serum (OGSS) is the maximum amount of iron that transferrin can bind. In addition, latent iron binding capacity (LGSS) is isolated, which determines the volume of transferrin that is not filled with iron. The parameter is used mainly in the diagnosis of anemia.
Inorganic substances and vitamins
- Potassium (K+) is the main intracellular ion involved in maintaining the potassium-sodium balance between cells and the matrix, and also plays an important role in contractility, conduction and excitability of muscles, especially the heart.
- Sodium (na+) is the main extracellular cation that forms the water-electrolyte balance and acid-base balance. It activates the processes of nervous excitement, muscle contraction and other reactions.
- Chlorine (cl-) is the main extracellular anion that compensates for sodium and forms an acid-base equilibrium. It also participates in the digestion of food in the stomach and in the processes of detoxification.
- Calcium (ca+) participates in the construction of tissues and metabolism. It is a building material for bones and teeth and performs many other functions. Its deficiency is manifested primarily by growth and development disorders in children and bone fragility in adults, as well as weakness and seizures.
- Magnesium (mg+) is necessary for the vital activity of each organ, although it is most important for the heart. When there is a deficit, first of all there are signs of nervous exhaustion, and when there is an excess, there are cardiac arrhythmias.
- Phosphorus (P-) participates in the regulation of the nervous system and the formation of bones and teeth, affects the acid-base balance and the functioning of all organs and systems.
- Folic acid (vitamin B9)It is necessary for cell division, which is especially important for the circulatory system and immunity. With a small deficiency, weakness and insomnia are observed, and with severe anemia, specific anemia, and sometimes immunodeficiency.
- Cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) participates in DNA synthesis, so its deficiency is especially significant for rapidly dividing blood and intestinal cells. It also stabilizes the nervous system, which is why neuroses develop with a deficiency.
- Antistreptolysin-O (ASLO) - these are antibodies against streptolysin-O, protein -hemolytic streptococcus. Its presence indicates a streptococcal infection or the presence of an autoimmune process.
Clinics for research
Category - medicine