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Brief description of the parameters of the general blood test
Erythrocytes - are red blood corpuscles involved in the transport of oxygen with the help of their main component - hemoglobin. A decrease in the level of erythrocytes is called erythropenia, (most often it is identical to anemia), and an increase is erythrocytosis.
Hemoglobin - is a complex protein capable of transporting oxygen to tissues due to its reversible binding. Its decrease is called anemia, and is the most frequent deviation in the blood test. An increase in hemoglobin is rarely observed and is usually not associated with pathology.
Reticulocytes are the progenitor cells of erythrocytes in the process of hematopoiesis. A decrease in reticulocytes (reticulocytopenia) usually indicates insufficient renewal of blood cells. Their increase (reticulocytosis) is observed with accelerated regeneration of red blood cells.
Color indicator (CPU) is the ratio between the amount of hemoglobin in the blood and the number of red blood cells, that is, the degree of saturation of red blood cells with hemoglobin. A decrease in CPU (hypochromia) indicates a deterioration in the ability of the blood to carry oxygen. And hyperchromia indicates an over-saturation of erythrocytes with hemoglobin.
Coefficient of variation (RDW-CV) - shows the heterogeneity of red blood cells. If it is exceeded, there are a lot of too small or large red blood cells in the blood. If it is underestimated, it is recommended to retake the analysis, since this result is recorded only in case of analyzer errors.
Standard Deviation (RDW-SD) demonstrates how the cells are dissimilar in size and volume, that is, the average difference between the largest and smallest erythrocyte.
Platelets are blood plates responsible for blood clotting and vascular nutrition. Their decrease (thrombocytopenia) usually leads to bleeding, and an increase (thrombocytosis) leads to the formation of blood clots.
Leukocytes - are a heterogeneous group of colorless blood cells that are more responsible for immunity. An excess of leukocytes (leukocytosis) often indicates the presence of an infectious process, and their deficiency (leukopenia) indicates a lack of immunity.
Neutrophils are one of the types of granulocytes that play a key role in the fight against bacterial infections. An excess of the number of neutrophils (neutrophilosis) usually indicates the development of bacterial disease, and their decrease (neutropenia) indicates immunodeficiency.
Young and young neutrophils are early forms of neutrophil differentiation that are practically not found in peripheral blood. An increase in their number indicates the active maturation of new neutrophils in infection or leukemia.
Rod-shaped neutrophils are not fully differentiated neutrophils. A change in their number indicates an increase ( rejuvenation ) or decrease ( aging ) neutrophil regeneration rates.
Shift leukocyte formulas is the percentage ratio of young and mature forms of neutrophils. With the predominance of young neutrophils, they talk about a shift of the leukogram to the left (hyperregeneration), and with a decrease in the number of rods, they talk about a shift of the leukogram to the right (hyporegeneration).
Eosinophils are a type of granulocytes stained with eosin. They are primarily responsible for allergic reactions and antiparasitic immunity. Increased eosinophils - eosinophilia. Reduction of eosinophils - eosinopenia.
Basophils are a type of granulocytes involved in inflammation, for example, insect bites, and some other processes.
Lymphocytes are agranulocytes responsible for humoral immunity (antibody production). They increase (lymphocytosis), mainly in viral diseases, and decrease (lymphopenia) in immunodeficiency.
Monocytes are active phagocytes in peripheral blood related to agranulocytes. They participate in the reactions of humoral and cellular immunity. Their increase is specific for a number of diseases (mononucleosis, tuberculosis and others).
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a general nonspecific indicator of blood that is sensitive to a variety of processes - from menstruation to chronic infections.